The Maremma is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea. It includes much of south-western Tuscany and part of northern Lazio. It was formerly mostly marsh-land, often malarial, but was drained and reclaimed as part of the Battle for Land under the Fascist régime of the early twentieth century. Parts were repopulated with people from other regions of Italy, notably the Veneto.
It was traditionally populated by the butteri, mounted cattle herders who rode horses fitted with one of two distinctive styles of saddle, the scafarda and the bardella
The Maremma has an area of about 5000 km2. The central part corresponds approximately with the province of Grosseto, extending northward to the Colline Metallifere and the slopes of Monte Amiata, but the region extends northward from Piombino to the mouth of the Cecina (it), and southwards into Lazio as far as Civitavecchia.
The Maremma has given rise to, or given its name to, several breeds of domestic animal. These include two breeds of working horse, the Maremmano and the Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale, formerly used by butteri and cavalcanti; the Maremmana breed of large grey cattle; the Maremmano breed of shepherd's guard-dog; and the Macchiaiola Maremmana breed of small pig, so named because it was kept extensively, left to roam in the woodland.